American middle school

The Invention of Middle School

In the 1960s, one scholar writes, there was no grand vision behind the idea of a middle school. The problem that the model sought to solve was segregation.
Little Rock Nine

Little Rock, Then and Now

Segregation and inequality are still major issues in Little Rock today
Lincoln University graduate Lloyd L. Gaines, 24 years old, during the mandamus suit trial in which he is seeking to compel the University of Missouri to admit him as a law student. (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

Desegregating Mizzou

It took twelve years and the Supreme Court before the University of Missouri agreed to accept black students.
Prince Edward County School (AP Photo/Henry Burroughs)

When a Memoir Tells Half the Story: Prince Edward County and School Desegregation

Kristen Green's memoir Something Must Be Done About Prince Edward County neglects the broader significance of the county's school desegregation crisis.
"Albert Einstein 1947" by Photograph by Oren Jack Turner, Princeton, N.J. - The Library of Congress. Licensed under Public Domain via <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albert_Einstein_1947.jpg#/media/File:Albert_Einstein_1947.jpg" target="_blank">Wikimedia Commons</a>

Albert Einstein: Genius and Anti-racist

A look at Albert Einstein's passionate fight against racism.
Attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama, Governor of Alabama George Wallace stands at the door of the Foster Auditorium while being confronted by United States Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach.

Was George Wallace Anti-Education…Or Just Anti-Integration?

While pledging to keep schools segregated, Alabama Governor George Wallace set up a community college system that benefited black Alabamans.

How Segregation Hurts Kids

Educational segregation hurts all kids, white, black, and Hispanic.

The Etiquette of Desegregation

How whites and blacks had to learn new forms of etiquette post desegregation.