The movement against vivisection—experiments involving live animals—swelled with women. A group of scientists was determined to stop them.
In recent experiments, scientists brought back cellular functions to the brains of dead pigs, recalling early galvanism.
A century ago, the Flexner Report led to the closure of 75% of U.S. medical schools. It still explains a lot about today’s unequal access to healthcare.
Medical authorities wrote about leeches as if they sucked blood out of the goodness of their hearts.
For a brief period of time in the 19th century, doctors used "mesmerism" for pain-free surgery.