Photograph of Septima Clark, ca. 1960, Avery Photo Collection, 10-9, Courtesy of the Avery Research Center.

How Septima Poinsette Clark Spoke Up for Civil Rights

The daughter of a slave, Septima Clark graduated from college, became a teacher, and became a fierce advocate for social and cultural change.  
A mother holding her newborn in a birthing tub after her home water birth.

From Home Births to Maternity Wards and Back Again

Once hospital deliveries became mainstream, mothers have had to make a choice: a home birth or go to the hospital? 
A sleeping car porter employed by the Pullman Company at Union Station in Chicago, Illinois.

The Historic Achievement of the Pullman Porter’s Union

The achievements of the Pullman Porter's Union were a significant civil rights victory for both U.S. labor and the civil liberties of African-Americans. 
"Men with sign "International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union""

Why We Should Care About the Death of Labor Unions

Labor unions nationwide may be weakened by the Supreme Court. But unions have been instrumental in protecting the interests of underrepresented groups.
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King.

By Herman Hiller / New York World-Telegram & Sun, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Ronald Reagan and the Rewriting of Martin Luther King’s Legacy

Ronald Reagan invoked Dr. King's legacy to fit with his larger political and rhetorical aims. 
Mug shot taken in 1901 when Goldman was implicated in the assassination of President McKinley

From Enemy to Icon: The Life of Emma Goldman

While alive, Emma Goldman was considered an enemy of the state. In death, she became a celebrated American icon. 
Female dentist with patient, 1960.

How Women Dentists Were Perceived in the 1960s

A look at how women dentists were perceived in the 1960s, emphasizing the overall professional entrance of women in the workplace.
Marianne North, Katherine Routledge and Delia Akeley

3 Women Explorers You Should Know

Their names may not be widely recognized, but these three intrepid women explorers deserved broader acclaim for their accomplishments.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton in her later years



Celebrating Feminist Pioneer Elizabeth Cady Stanton

We highlight two of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's essays on the bicentennial of her birth.
Cuisine des sorcières

What Caused the Salem Witch Trials?

Looking into the underlying causes of the Salem Witch Trials in the 17th century.