A century ago, the Flexner Report led to the closure of 75% of U.S. medical schools. It still explains a lot about today’s unequal access to healthcare.
Federal funding for medical research has declined, leading academics to seek alternative funding sources, sometimes from drug companies.
For a brief period of time in the 19th century, doctors used "mesmerism" for pain-free surgery.
In the 19th century, students at American medical schools stole the corpses of recently-buried African Americans to be used for dissection.