Freedmen's School

Bringing Universal Education to the South

2018 marks the 150th anniversary of a number of constitutional conventions in Southern states during Reconstruction. One lasting achievement was creating universal education systems.
Christmas classroom

Are Classroom Holiday Parties Constitutional?

Can schools let students and teachers celebrate religions holidays without violating the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause?
American middle school

The Invention of Middle School

In the 1960s, one scholar writes, there was no grand vision behind the idea of a middle school. The problem that the model sought to solve was segregation.
Department of Education headquarters, 2008

Does the U.S. Need a Department of Education?

The U.S. Department of Education has been controversial since President Jimmy Carter started it in 1979. Now many are wondering if it needs to exist.
Mather School, Dorchester Massachusetts

Where American Public Schools Came From

How American public schools came to be taxpayer-funded.
classroom

The Problem of School Discipline in the Twenties

Teachers, especially women, faced social pressure in both directions when it came to school discipline in the 1920s. 

How Parents Watch Teachers

What parents watch teachers the most? Economic class has a lot to do with report cards.

Students Don’t Just Need Grit, They Need Agency

Psychologist Angela Duckworth argues that students need "grit," or rugged individualism, to succeed. But scholar Anindya Kundu insists there's more to it.
Children playing in the schoolyard during recess.

Recess Matters

As schools cut recess from the curriculum, more and more research suggests that it's a vital part of a child's day.

White Teachers, Black Students

Perception of black students by their white teachers may be racially biased.