In 1881, Prudential announced that insurance policies held by black adults would be worth one-third less than the same plans held by whites.
Oberlin College was founded by religious idealists committed to abolitionism and integration. Then public attitudes began to shift.
In the 19th century, students at American medical schools stole the corpses of recently-buried African Americans to be used for dissection.
Dorothy Porter, a Black woman pioneer in library and information science, created an archive that structured a new field.
In 1854, Elizabeth Jennings rode the streetcar of her choice, in an early civil rights protest that led to desegregating public transportation in NYC.
Black intellectuals in the U.S.—from W. E. B. Du Bois to Marcus Garvey—had strong and divergent opinions on Japanese Empire.
At the royal wedding, bishop Michael Curry delivered a rousing address, calling attention to the African American experience in the Anglican Church.