Simón Bolívar by José Gil de Castro

Bolívar in Haiti

of the nineteenth century, when Latin American liberator Simón Bolívar sought help from the newly founded republic of Haiti, the first country in Latin America to gain independence, and the...
The first black marines decorated by the famed 2nd Marine Dvision somewhere in the Pacific. (Left to right) Staff Sgt Timerlate Kirven and Cpl. Samuel J. Love, Sr., received Purple Hearts for wounds received in the Battle of Saipan.

Who Were the Montford Point Marines?

staff had chosen black Marines to replace the white instructors. “When we took over as weapons instructors and so forth,” Archibald Mosley, a Montford Pointer, said in a previous interview,...
Whitman at about fifty

Should Walt Whitman Be #Cancelled?

men of letters in his own time found his work insufficiently literary, obscene, and perverse, and only later was he provisionally included in the American literary tradition. This bicentennial celebration...
Austin Community College Fall 2017 Commencement ceremonies on Thursday, December 14, 2017 at the Frank Erwin Center.

Affirmative Action: Foundations and Key Concepts

adoption occurred in the early 1960s, by colleges in the North that were inspired by the nonviolent civil rights protests occurring in the South. The second wave of adoption emerged...
Yorktown Victory Monument, Colonial National Historic Site, Yorktown, Virginia

Whitewashing American History

Marshal Pétain, the Secretary of the Interior, and New York governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a year before his election to the presidency. The CNM erased the history of blacks in...
Kimpa Vita and a map of Kongo

Did Kongolese Catholicism Lead to Slave Revolutions?

prayers in the local Kikongo language. In the 1690s, when a large civil war broke out in the duchy she resided in, she dreamt of restoring the Kingdom. She trained...
Employment of Negroes in Agriculture by Earle Richardson

Racial Violence as Impetus for the Great Migration

their labor population in place. When that didn’t work, they raised some wages, and, in some areas, called for a reduction in violence directed at blacks. Many white laborers, on...
Seymour Hersh

Seymour Hersh on the Future of American Journalism

...told? Do you have faith in investigative journalism? I gave a speech in Orlando to a national group called the Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE). I think they started in...
Obama commencement speeches

Who Gets to Make Commencement Speeches (and Why)?

In December 1996, the communications scholar Michael Eric Dyson, then at the University of North Carolina, delivered the commencement address to fall graduates and their families. A “hip-hop intellectual” and...
Reconstruction Richmond

Revisiting Reconstruction

inevitable, it is equally certain that Reconstruction transformed the lives of southern blacks in ways unmeasurable by statistics and in areas unreachable by law. It raised blacks’ expectations and aspirations,...