black power salute olympics

The Uneasy History of Integrated Sports in America

...also delves into this history. Before World War II, those few blacks on otherwise all-white teams in the north led a “dual existence,” as figures simultaneously loved and hated, or...
charlottesville syllabus: history of hate in america

Charlottesville Syllabus: Readings on the History of Hate in America

...were capable of creating vast wealth. For those who supported black subjugation, witnessing blacks thrive and defy the stereotypes of black inferiority was too much. The Lasting Fallout of the...
Smoke billowing over Tulsa, Oklahoma during 1921 race riots

The Devastation of Black Wall Street

...the law for blacks to shop at white-owned stores, black businesses flourished. However, even though black businesses profited from how segregation reduced competition for black patrons, segregation also limited blacks’...
Giovanni's Room, Philadelphia

Book Club Made Me Gay

...for example, free blacks in the urban North had established libraries, reading rooms, and literary societies. Such spaces were crucial for circulating essential movement texts, and for supporting the development...
Draft riots

Race and Labor in the 1863 New York City Draft Riots

...remains the most signficant insurrection by civilians in American history. Opposition to the Civil War was largely fueled by a fear of newly freed blacks moving north and taking over...
Oxford spires

Old English Has a Serious Image Problem

...At the same time, however, the study of Anglo-Saxon played a part in the more general cultural belief—prevalent at the time—in the superiority of northern European or “Anglo-Saxon” whiteness. In...
KKK members parade in Virginia, 1922

The History of the KKK in American Politics

...costumed rides scared blacks, the group turned to vigilantism. As blacks were being freed and the country began extending civil rights—including voting rights—Klan groups called “Klaverns” formed around the South...
Talladega College

The Historical Need for Black Colleges

...the adult black population was functionally illiterate. Before these colleges could go about the serious business of higher education they first had to prepare blacks on the elementary and secondary...
It is the bean, that we mean, so white and lean.

What It Was Like To Be an African-American Soldier During the Civil War

...Death by hanging was not uncommon. In early 1863, the War Department allowed for the recruitment of free blacks in the north. That spring, ex-slaves in the Confederacy began being...
Presidential portrait of Woodrow Wilson

Understanding Woodrow Wilson’s Racism

...slaves and their descendants, as well as free blacks of the North. Wilson encapsulates that historic moment himself in a profile of Robert E. Lee. He calls Lee noble, heroic,...