A century ago, the Flexner Report led to the closure of 75% of U.S. medical schools. It still explains a lot about today’s unequal access to healthcare.
The famous novelist worked to fight the psychological cost of black oppression.
Insulin coma and deep sleep therapies were used for years on patients with mental illness, even though there was never any evidence they worked.
Many Civil War veterans like Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain came out of combat with injuries and lasting disabilities that no one could see.
For a brief period of time in the 19th century, doctors used "mesmerism" for pain-free surgery.